Tennis Elbow Prevention and Treatment

What Is Tennis Elbow?

Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is a condition in which the outer part of the elbow becomes sore and tender at the lateral epicondyle. The forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from repetitive overuse. This leads to pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow.

Tennis Elbow Prevention and Treatment

Who Is Affected?

You don’t have to be a tennis player to suffer from tennis elbow. It is caused by the repetitive movements and the gripping actions common in tennis hence the term ‘tennis’ elbow. However, it may also occur in other activities requiring repetitive gripping actions. Tennis elbow can therefore stem from daily activities such as using scissors, cutting meat, carrying grocery bags, gardening, manual work that involves repetitive turning or lifting of the wrist, such as plumbing, or bricklaying, and typing.

Continue reading Tennis Elbow Prevention and Treatment

7 Secrets to Preventing Hamstring Strains

Are you or have you been ‘HamStrung’?

‘Hamstrung’ – a figurative verbal expression from the noun hamstring (the muscle and tendon on the back of the thigh), originating in the 1500’s where soldiers would slay their enemy across the back of their thighs rendering them disabled, crippled, lame, or useless. If you have ever strained or torn a hamstring muscle (albeit in a less violent manner!), you probably felt the same.

Hamstring strains are the most significant injury in football/soccer, rugby, running (more commonly sprinting), basketball, and baseball. Apart from being debilitating at the time of injury, hamstring strains can be frustratingly slow to heal. Often taking an average of 3-4 weeks to recover, even up to 6 months to return to full sporting ability. What’s worse, is that there is a 20 to 50% chance that you will re-injure your hamstring in the same season!

The hamstring is a powerful group of muscles that arise in the hip and pelvis and insert as a strong tendon at the back, just below the knee joint. It is a two-joint muscle in that it works over two joints, both bending the knee and extending the hip. Most commonly injuries to the hamstring happen with sudden changes in running direction, sudden acceleration, explosive speed, or when trying to contract the muscle whilst it is being stretched, for example a soccer player with an outstretched leg, attempting a high kick all at the same time.


Continue reading 7 Secrets to Preventing Hamstring Strains

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Practical Treatment Approach

What is Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome?

Patellar tendon pain, commonly also referred to a patellar tendinopathy, patellar tendonosis or patellar tendonitis occurs because your patellar tendon becomes overstressed. The different suffixes actually describe different states of the tendon. The suffix “osis” refers to long-term degeneration of the tendon usually without inflammation, ‘itis’ refers to a more acute inflammation stage and ‘opothy’ refers to general degeneration of a tendon.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome


Patellofemoral pain (PFP) accounts for up to 17% of knee pain seen generally, and up to 40% of knee problems seen in the sporting population (1), with up to 7% of adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years suffering with the condition (2). The condition is more common in young adolescents, especially those active in sport, and is also seen in military recruits. In addition to active individuals, inactive adolescents who are subjected to a sudden increase in walking and/or stair climbing may also suffer.

In both groups the condition represents an inability of tissue to adapt to increased loading. PFP is variously described as anterior knee pain, chondromalacia patellae, patella malalignment syndrome and patellofemoral pain syndrome. The condition typically presents as a dull ache over the anterior aspect of the knee, worse following prolonged sitting and when descending stairs. Although more common in youth, the condition can occur at any age and is typically associated with patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) in seniors.

Structure And Function Of The Patellofemoral Joint

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

The patella is the largest sesamoid bone (bone lying within a tendon) in the body, attached above to the quadriceps tendon and below to the patellar tendon. Medially and laterally the patellar retinacula (fibrous tissue to the side of the patella) offer support. The breadth of the pelvis and close proximity of the knee creates an outward (valgus) angle of the tibia compared to the femur. Coupled with this, the direction of pull of the quadriceps is along the shaft of the femur and that of the patellar tendon is almost vertical. The difference between the two lines of pull is known as the Q angle and is often considered an important determinant of knee health. Normal values for the Q angle are in the region of 15–20°.

In full extension, the patella does not contact the femur, but lies in a slightly outward (lateral) position. As knee flexion progresses, the patella should move inwards (medially). If it moves laterally it will butt against the prominent lateral femoral condyle and the lateral edge of the patellar groove of the femur.

Throughout flexion, different areas of the patellar undersurface are compressed onto the femur below. At 20° flexion, the inferior pole of the patella is compressed, and by 45° the middle section is affected. At 90° flexion, compression has moved to the superior aspect of the knee. In a full squatting position, with the knee reaching 135° flexion, only the medial and lateral areas of the patella are compressed.

How Does Patellar Tendonitis Happen?

The patellar tendon runs from the bottom border of the kneecap (patella bone) and attaches to the shin bone (tibia). It acts as an extension of the thigh muscles and works to straighten the knee by transferring forces from the thigh muscles (quadriceps).
The tendon works hard during activities like jumping, landing, and squatting and is therefore common in athletes who sports like basketball, volleyball, netball, or participate in ballet or running. But you don’t have to be an athlete to have patellar tendon pain, simple daily chores of climbing stairs, repetitive kneeling down at home or at work could also cause patellar tendinopathy.

Do You Suffer With This?

Do you suffer from sharp pain on, or just below, the knee cap during physical activity, occasionally followed by a dull ache for some time after the activity? Do you feel stiffness in the knee, like a tight band is restricting movement, especially when bending the knee? And you can’t really remember a specific incident that trigged the pain, but instead the pain has been developing slowly over the past few weeks?
If so, the chances are you probably have patellar tendon pain, commonly also called patellar tendinopathy, patellar tendonosis or patellar tendonitis.It occurs because your patellar tendon becomes over-stressed. This occurs frequently in athletes involved in ‘jumping’ sports (hence why it is often nicknamed Jumper’s Knee).

What Can Be Done About My Knee Pain?

Patellar tendon pain can be very restricting and frustrating as the pain can linger for weeks. It’s possible that you won’t need complete rest and may not have to stop exercise all together. With a little self-discipline and help from a physical therapist your patellar tendon pain could be resolved in a matter of weeks. Initial treatments may focus on pain relief.
Massage therapy to the tendon and surrounding thigh muscles can promote the repair process and decrease pain. Manual therapy can be performed to stretch tight TIME-SAVING RESOURCES FOR PHYSICAL AND MANUAL THERAPISTS muscles surrounding the knee and relieve stiffness in the joint. Taping or strapping can relieve pain in the short term, your therapist can apply this or teach you how to do it. Knee braces can also be helpful in pain relief.


Treatments will then focus on rehabilitation. This is the important part where you can take control of your recovery. The entire lower limb, from your pelvis to your foot needs to work together with the knee to withstand the forces of daily activities and exercise.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
So, strengthening weak calf, thigh and/or buttock muscles will help reduce the burden on the patellar tendon. Your therapist will give you daily exercises to do that will progress in difficulty as your symptoms improve.
Making sure your leg is well aligned will also ensure each muscle and joint is working together harmoniously. This may require stretching exercises to lengthen tight muscles. Your physical therapist may refer you to a podiatrist for foot orthotics which will give your leg better support and alignment.

Marathon Madness – Facts, Questions and Tips

Marathon Madness

Over the last few decades the popularity of running as a recreational activity has grown exponentially with the introduction of the big city marathons and increased awareness of the health benefits associated with physical activity. Unfortunately with the increase in participation has come an increase in running-related injuries. Studies have shown that the yearly incidence of running injuries is between 37-56%. Between 70-80% of running injuries occur from the knee downwards, the knee itself being the most common site with an incidence rate of between 25 to 42%.

Continue reading Marathon Madness – Facts, Questions and Tips

Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Knee pain affects nearly 50% of people over the age of 50, and in 25% of those people it becomes a long-term problem although it can occur at any time of life. The pain caused by osteoarthritis of the knee can significantly reduce your quality of life, your experiences with your family and impact on your daily activities.

Unlike some forms of arthritis which result in inflamed, swollen, hot, painful joints, osteoarthritis (OA) is different. OA is a degenerative arthritis, where the cartilage in your joints, or in this case the cartilage in the knee, starts to break down.

Continue reading Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Chronic Plantar Heel Pain

Heel pain, or as it is officially known chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is usually a change in the nature of the tissue within the sole of your foot, attaching to your heel bone called the plantar fascia. This structure acts as a strong guide wire between the heel and the big toe as you move through your foot during walking and running.

More rarely, CPHP can affect the heel bone itself, and sometimes the heel pad. In children the condition must be differentiated from growth plate pain in the region (Sever’s disease), and in adults medical conditions such as gout.

Continue reading Chronic Plantar Heel Pain

Rugby Hurts: What the Research Tells us About Rugby Injuries

As the start of 2017 RBS 6 Nations Rugby Championship draws near we’ve put together a few facts and figures about rugby injuries to help get you in the mood.

Rugby is a full-contact sport, and therefore makes it a war zone for injury during the course of a match. In an average season, 1 in 4 players will receive an injury which puts them out of the game for 1 or more matches. As the average player performs 20-40 tackles per match and nearly half of all injuries happen during the tackle, it’s easy to see why it’s a key topic among physical therapists and sports medicine practitioners.


Image related to the Rugby Hurts blog post by Health Solutions Therapy
Image related to the Rugby Hurts blog post by Health Solutions Therapy








Continue reading Rugby Hurts: What the Research Tells us About Rugby Injuries